Everything travelers need to know about novel coronavirus
By Marnie Hunter, CNN
(CNN) — The spread of novel coronavirus has travelers around the world on edge. Much is still unknown about the outbreak, and health officials are urging caution.
That means travelers crisscrossing the globe should be aware of the virus, steer clear of heavily impacted areas and exercise some of the same kinds of preventive measures they’d use to avoid influenza and other illnesses.
Here’s what travelers should know about the virus outbreak:
An increasing number of travel advisories have been issued by countries around the world, urging caution for select destinations, and discouraging travel to others.
The US State Department’s travel warning for China is at the highest level — Level 4: Do not travel. The department’s warning for travel to Iran, which was already at Level 4 prior to the outbreak, was recently updated to add information about coronavirus.
Travelers should reconsider travel to Italy and South Korea, according to the State Department, while travel to specific areas of those countries — Lombardy and Veneto in Italy and Daegu in South Korea — is discouraged. The department also advises travelers to reconsider travel to Mongolia.
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is discouraging nonessential travel to China, South Korea, Italy and Iran.
Japan and Hong Kong carry lower-level CDC advisories.
All travelers should avoid contact with sick people and clean their hands frequently.
In a tweet on March 1, US President Donald Trump announced additional screening of travelers from “designated high risk countries.”
Vice President Mike Pence said that anyone traveling to the United States on a flight from Italy and South Korea will receive multiple screenings before arriving in the United States. His comments were made during a coronavirus briefing at the White House on March 2.
Pence would not go into specifics as to which other countries were being considered for increased screening and advisories, but he did mention the European Union, as you don’t need a passport to travel between those countries, and that there have been new cases popping up there.
Health screenings are already in place in the US for those traveling from China. American citizens, lawful permanent residents and their family members who have been in China within the last 14 days require screening at one of 11 designated US airports.
Those screenings involve a temperature check and observations for symptoms.
Foreign nationals who have visited China in the past 14 days are barred from entering the US.
US citizens and permanent residents returning to the United States who have traveled to Iran within the previous 14 days must enter through an approved airport. Foreign nationals who have traveled to Iran within the last 14 days will be denied permission to travel to the US.
Cruise line precautions
The Diamond Princess cruise ship was quarantined for two weeks in Yokohama, Japan, in February. More than 700 people contracted the virus aboard the ship, and at least five of those patients have died.
Diamond Princess will be sanitized and inspected and won’t be sailing again until April 29, Princess Cruises has announced.
Many cruises to and from mainland China and other Asian destinations have been canceled or modified, according to Cruise Critic, an online cruise community and review site.
The State Department has advised Americans to “reconsider travel by cruise ship to or within Asia.” The department also warned that itineraries elsewhere could be impacted by screening and other measures implemented to prevent the spread of the virus.
Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA) has issued enhanced protocols for its members in efforts to prevent introduction of the illness aboard ships.
CLIA members are to “deny boarding to all persons who have travelled from or transited via airports in South Korea, Iran, China, including Hong Kong and Macau, and any municipality in Italy subject to lockdown (quarantine) measures by the Italian Government, as designated by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, within 14 days prior to embarkation,” one of the organization’s guidelines reads.
Denied boarding for anyone who has had close contact with anyone suspected to have coronavirus and pre-boarding screening are also outlined.
Individual cruise lines also have their own policies and screening procedures to guard against introducing the illness. The CDC has posted tips to stem the spread of respiratory viruses for crew and passengers.
Flights to some destinations suspended
Airlines all over the globe have canceled flights amid the outbreak, and service to China has been suspended by many airlines.
Delta Air Lines suspended flights between the United States and China through April 30.
Delta Air Lines has also temporarily suspended flights to and from Milan, Italy, with service expected to resume at the beginning of May.
Delta service between the US and Seoul, South Korea, was also reduced recently.
Delta is waiving travel change fees for flights to and from Beijing and Shanghai, China; Seoul, South Korea; and all flights to and from Italy. Many other airlines have offered waivers on change fees or the option to cancel for credit on a future flight.
American Airlines has suspended operations to and from Milan, Italy, from New York’s JFK Airport and Miami International Airport. The suspension was a result of a reduction in demand, an alert from the airline said.
American will waive change fees up to 14 days prior to travel for customers who purchase travel between March 1 and March 16.
American Airlines has also suspended flights between the US and China through March 28.
Other airlines, including British Airways, Lufthansa, Air France, Air Asia, EgyptAir, Cathay Pacific, Air India and Finnair have similarly slashed or suspended service.
Travelers with upcoming plans should check with their airlines and look for advisories posted on carriers’ websites.
Airline cleaning efforts
Some airlines have bumped up their sanitation efforts to stem the virus’ spread.
“In February, we began deploying a fogging technique with a highly effective, EPA-registered disinfectant on flights arriving in our US gateways from Asia — Atlanta, Detroit, Honolulu, Los Angeles, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Portland and Seattle,” Delta says on its website.
Fogging is being performed on all trans-Pacific flights arriving into the US, the airline said, and those procedures are being expanded to more inbound international flights with a focus on flights coming from places with reported coronavirus cases. Fogging on all inbound Italy flights to New York-JFK and Atlanta began on February 29.
Southwest Airlines regularly cleans aircraft and “will continue to monitor and follow all guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and World Health Organization regarding the coronavirus and make any adjustments to our procedures, as necessary,” the airline said in a statement.
While disinfecting is helpful, frequent hand washing is among a traveler’s best defenses, infectious disease experts say.
“Even if there is virus in the inanimate environment, it’s not going to jump off the seat and bite you in the ankle,” says Dr. William Schaffner, a professor of medicine in Vanderbilt University’s division of infectious diseases.
“You’ve got to touch it, and then touch your nose or your mouth. So it’s those hands we have that are the important intermediary. And that’s where I would put the emphasis,” he said.
The CDC advises washing hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. An alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol can be used when soap and water are not available.
Hand washing is a strong defense; masks are not
Dr. Schaffner has received a lot of questions about whether people should be wearing masks to avoid infection.
He realizes it’s culturally very common in Asia, but he says the CDC doesn’t recommend it for the general public because “the scientific basis showing that people in the community wearing masks actually has any benefit is very thin and questionable.”
More fitted respirator masks may be used in medical settings, but are generally impractical for the general public, Schaffner says.
Good hand hygiene is a better defense.
US Surgeon General Dr. Jerome Adams has urged the public to stop buying masks.
“There are things people can do to stay safe,” Adams said. “There are things they shouldn’t be doing and one of the things they shouldn’t be doing in the general public is going out and buying masks.”
He warned that the risk of infection can actually increase when masks aren’t worn properly.
Most travel insurance is unlikely to cover this situation
Airlines are relaxing their policies and some major hotel chains are waiving cancellation fees, but recouping all the costs associated with trips canceled due to coronavirus fears is far from guaranteed.
An outbreak of a virus is not covered under most standard trip cancellation insurance policies, according to TravelInsurance.com.
“For those who purchased a Cancel for Any Reason (CFAR) optional upgrade, however, some measure of trip cancellation protection may be available,” according to Stan Sandberg, co-founder of TravelInsurance.com.
Those holding existing policies should contact their providers to see if their plans offer any coverage.